Key Points from peer reviewed Achilles tendon research by scientists, doctors, sport trainers, educators, and physical therapists whose last name starts with K-M. AchillesTendon.com is based on this peer reviewed Achilles tendon research.
- Achilles tendinopathy: some aspects of basic science and clinical management
- Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate and Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy – A Clinical and Cellular Investigation
- The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries
- Functional treatment after surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture: wrap vs walking cast
- Histopathology of common tendinopathies: Update and implications for clinical management
- Surgical interventions for treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures
- Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo
- A Soccer-Specific Balance Training Program for Hamstring Muscle and Patellar and Achilles Tendon Injuries – An Intervention Study in Premier League Female Soccer
- Changes in blood circulation of the contralateral Achilles tendon during and after acupuncture and heating
- A Comprehensive Study of Sports Injuries in the U.S.
- Cyclic Loading of 3 Achilles Tendon Repairs Simulating Early Postoperative Forces
- Light microscopic histology of Achilles tendon ruptures
- Achilles tendon ruptures in elite athletes
- Etiologic factors associated with Achilles tendinitis in runners
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Achilles tendinopathy: some aspects of basic science and clinical management
Kader, D.; Saxena, A.;Movin, T,; Maffulli, N. (2002) British Journal of Sports Medicine 36, 239-249 Key points: Achilles tendinopathy is prevalent and potentially incapacitating in athletes involved in running sports. It is a degenerative, not an inflammatory, condition. Most patients respond to conservative measures if the condition is recognized early. Surgery usually involves removal of adhesions and degenerated areas and decompression of the tendon by tenotomy or measures that influence the local circulation.
Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate and Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy – A Clinical and Cellular Investigation
Kane, Timothy P. C.; Ismail, Muhammad; Calder, James D. F. (2008) American Journal of Sports Medicine June vol. 36 no. 6 1160-1163 Key Point: “This study has failed to support the clinical benefit of GTN patches previously described in the literature. In the available tissue samples, there did not appear to be any histological or immunohistochemical change in Achilles tendinopathy treated with GTN compared with those undergoing standard nonoperative therapy.”
The effect of foot structure and range of motion on musculoskeletal overuse injuries
Kaufman, K.R.; Brodine, S.K.; Shaffer, R.A.; Johnson, C.W.; Cullison, T.R. (1999) American Journal of Sports Medicine 27, 585–93 Key point: injury can be caused by tight inflexible calf muscles, and either hyper mobile flat feet or high arched cavus chunk feet.
Functional treatment after surgical repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture: wrap vs walking cast
Kerkhoffs, G.M.M.J; Struijs, P.A.A; Raaymakers, E.L.F.B; Marti, R.K. (2002) Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 122: 102-105 Key Points: Functional treatment after surgical Achilles tendon repair is safe, and there is no increased risk of re-rupture or wound healing problems. Functional treatment with a wrap is preferable to treatment with a walking cast with respect to hospitalization time and return to sports.
Histopathology of common tendinopathies: Update and implications for clinical management
Note: This was an especially important study.
Khan, K.M.; Cook, J.L.; Bonar, F.; Harcourt, P.; Åstrom, M. (1999). Sports Medicine 27, 393–408 Key points: a) The vast majority of localized Achilles tendon pain cases are not due to inflammation (Achilles tendonitis), they are due to Achilles tendinosis, b) eccentric strengthening of the calf muscles speeds up the recovery from Achilles tendinosis, and c) an Achilles tendinosis recovery program should include: relative rest, eccentric muscle strengthening, physical therapies, and ice therapy, but not anti-inflammatory medication or cortisone injections.
Surgical interventions for treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures
Khan, Riaz J.K.; Carey Smith, Richard L. (2012) The Cochrane Library Issue 9 Key Points: Open surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures significantly reduces the risk of rerupture compared with non-surgical treatment, but produces significantly higher risks of other complications such as infection, adhesions and disturbed skin sensibility (numbness and tingling). The latter may be reduced by performing percutaneous surgery rather than open surgery.
Mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon, in vivo
Kongsgaarda, M.; Nielsena, C.H.; Hegnsvada, S.; Aagaardb, P.; Magnussona, S.P. (2011) Clinical Biomechanics vol. 26 issue 7, August,Pages 772–777 Key Point: Ultrasonography is applicable for evaluation of free human Achilles tendon mechanical properties in relation to training, injury and rehabilitation.
A Soccer-Specific Balance Training Program for Hamstring Muscle and Patellar and Achilles Tendon Injuries – An Intervention Study in Premier League Female Soccer
Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten (2009) American Journal of Sports Medicine vol. 37 no. 7 pages 1384-1393 Key Points: Soccer-specific balance training (protective balancing) can reduce Achilles tendinopathy. Non-contact Achilles tendinopathy injury rates were reduced from 1.5 to0.0/1000 hours.
Changes in blood circulation of the contralateral Achilles tendon during and after acupuncture and heating
Kubo, K.; Yajima, H.; Takayama, M.; Ikebukuro, T.; Mizoguchi, H; Takakura, N. (2011) International Journal of Sports Medicine 32(10):807-813 Key Point: Blood circulation in the injured tendon in a plaster cast may be improved by applying acupuncture or heating treatments to the contralateral healthy limb.
A Comprehensive Study of Sports Injuries in the U.S.
Lauer, Harvey. American Sports Data, Inc. 2003 Key Point: in 2002 there were an estimated 232,000 Achilles tendon sports injuries in the U.S. for individuals aged six and over. 109,000 prevented sports participation for between one future occasion and one month. 57,000 prevented participation for at least one month. 66,000 prevented participation for at least one month plus required emergency room treatment, a hospital stay, surgery, or therapy.
Cyclic Loading of 3 Achilles Tendon Repairs Simulating Early Postoperative Forces
Lee, Steven J.; Sileo, Michael J.; Kremenic, Ian J.; Orishimo, Karl; Ben-Avi, Simon; Nicholas, Stephen J.; McHugh, Malachy (2009) American Journal of Sports Medicine vol. 37 no. 4 786-790 Key Point: Epitendinous cross-stitch weave augmentation of Achilles tendon repairs significantly increased repair strength and gap resistance.
Light microscopic histology of Achilles tendon ruptures
Maffulli, N.; Barrass, V.; Ewen, S.W.B. (2000) American Journal of Sports Medicine 28, 857–63 Key point: the same degeneration that is present in tendons with Achilles tendinosis is also present in Achilles tendons that rupture.
Achilles tendon ruptures in elite athletes
Maffulli, N.; Longo, U.G.; Maffulli, G.D.; Khanna, A.; Denaro, V. (2011) Foot & Ankle International / American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society [and] Swiss Foot and Ankle Society 32(1):9-15 Key Points: Seventeen elite athletes with prodromal tendinous problems sustained an acute tear of the Achilles tendon and underwent percutaneous surgical repair. All patients were able to fully weight-bear on the operated limb by the end of the 8th postoperative week. The average time to return to full sport participation was 4.8±0.9 months.
Etiologic factors associated with Achilles tendinitis in runners
McCrory, J.A.; Martin, D.F.; Lowery, R.B.; Cannon, D.W.; Curl, W.W.; Read, H.M.; Hunter, D.M.; Craven, T.; Messier, S.P. (1999) Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, 1374–81 Key points: a) runners with Achilles tendinosis usually stretch less frequently than runners without Achilles tendinosis, b) runners with Achilles tendinosis have usually run for more years and at a faster pace than uninjured runners, c) runners with Achilles tendinosis pronate more than uninjured runners, and d) injury can be caused by tight inflexible calf muscles, and either hyper mobile flat feet or high arched cavus chunk feet.
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