Achilles Tendon Research N-Z

Key Points from peer reviewed Achilles tendon research by scientists, doctors, sport trainers, educators, and physical therapists whose last name starts with N-Z.  AchillesTendon.com is based on this peer reviewed Achilles tendon research.

Contents
  1. Iontophoresis With or Without Dexamethazone in the Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Pain
  2. Influence of Heel Flare and Midsole Construction on Pronation, Supination, and Impact Forces for Heel-Toe Running
  3. Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture – A Randomized, Controlled Study Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatments Using Validated Outcome Measures
  4. Functional anatomy and physiology of tendons
  5. Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow up
  6. Long-term prognosis of patients with Achilles tendinopathy
  7. Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate Treatment of Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial
  8. Influence of stretching and warm-up on Achilles tendon material properties
  9. Eccentric Loading, Shock-Wave Treatment, or a Wait-and-See Policy for Tendinopathy of the Main Body of Tendo Achilles – A Randomized Controlled Trial
  10. Injections for tendon injuries: Cure or Cause
  11. Achilles Tendon Disorders in Athletes
  12. Autologous Platelets Have No Effect on the Healing of Human Achilles Tendon Ruptures – A Randomized Single-Blind Study
  13. Conservative treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy
  14. Genetic associations with Achilles tendinopathy
  15. Eccentric Training of the Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy Results in Decreased Tendon Volume and Intratendinous Signal as Evaluated by MRI
  16. Achilles tendonitis: Are corticosteroid injections useful or harmful?
  17. Achilles tendon disorders in runners: A review
  18. Use of fluroquinolone and risk of Achilles tendon rupture: a population-based cohort study
  19. Tendinitis: The analysis and treatment for running and Eccentric exercise in chronic tendinitis
  20. Accelerated Achilles tendon healing by PDGF gene delivery with mesoporous silica nanoparticles
  21. Increased Risk of Achilles Tendon Rupture With Quinolone Antibacterial Use, Especially in Elderly Patients Taking Oral Corticosteroids
  22. Weight Bearing in the Non-Operative Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: A Randomised Controlled Trial
  23. Less Promising Results With Sclerosing Etoxysclerol Injections for Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Retrospective Study
  24. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders
  25. Conditioning of the Achilles tendon via ankle exercise improves correlations between sonographic measures of tendon thickness and body anthropometry
  26. Nonoperative Treatment of Acute Rupture of the Achilles Tendon – Results of a New Protocol and Comparison with Operative Treatment
  27. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of preseason injuries
  28. Effect of Eccentric Strengthening on Pain, Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Functional Fitness Factors in Male Patients with Achilles Tendinopathy
  29. Learn More

Iontophoresis With or Without Dexamethazone in the Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Pain

Neeter, C.; Thomeé, R.; Silbernagel, K.G.; Thomeé, P.; Karlsson, J. (2003) Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Dec;13(6):376-82 Key Points: a) using iontophoresis with dexamethasone is an effective treatment of acute Achilles tendon pain, b) however the studies small sample size limits the possibilities to draw definite conclusions.

Influence of Heel Flare and Midsole Construction on Pronation, Supination, and Impact Forces for Heel-Toe Running

Nigg, Benno M.; Bahlsen, H. Alexander (1988) International Journal of Sport Biomechanics Vol. 4 Issue 3, p205-219 Key Points: Changes in lateral heel flare do not have a relevant influence on changes in total and/or maximal pronation. Changes in lateral heel flare do have an effect on vertical impact force peaks if the midsole is relatively hard but not if the midsole is relatively soft.  A running shoe with a relatively hard midsole material and a neutral flare would have low initial pronation values and low vertical impact force peaks.

Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture – A Randomized, Controlled Study Comparing Surgical and Nonsurgical Treatments Using Validated Outcome Measures

Nilsson-Helander, Katarina; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Roland Thomeé, Roland; Faxén, Eva; Olsson, Nicklas; Eriksson, Bengt I.; Karlsson, Jon (2010) American Journal of Sports Medicine vol. 38 no. 11 Key Point: Ninety-seven patients (79 men, 18 women; mean age, 41 years) with acute Achilles tendon rupture were treated and followed for 1 year. The primary end point was re-rupturing. There was no statistically significant difference between surgical and nonsurgical treatment. Early mobilization is beneficial for patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture whether they are treated surgically or non-surgically.

Functional anatomy and physiology of tendons

O’Brien, M. (1992)Clinical Sports Medicine 11:505-20 Key Point: The Achilles tendon is the thickest and strongest tendon in the body.

Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow up

Öhberg, L; Lorentzon, R,; Alfredson, H. (2004) British Journal of Sports Medicine 38:8-11. Key point: Ultrasound studies indicate that most of the 12 patients with Achilles tendinosis who were treated with 12 weeks of eccentric calf muscle training showed a localized decrease in tendon thickness and a normalized tendon structure. The remaining structural tendon abnormalities seemed to be associated with residual pain in the tendon.

Long-term prognosis of patients with Achilles tendinopathy

Paavola, M.; Kannus, P.; Paakkala, T.; Pasanen, M.; Järvinen, M. (2000) American Journal of Sports Medicine 28, 634–42 Key point: 8 years after 83 patients suffered an Achilles tendon injury (and 30% had surgery) 84% had fully recovered or only experienced mild pain with strenuous exercise.

Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate Treatment of Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Paoloni, Justin A.; Appleyard, Richard C.; Nelson, Janis; Murrell, George A.C. (2004) The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery vol. 86, issue 5 Key Points: Topical glyceryl trinitrate significantly reduced pain with activity and at night, improved functional measures, and improved outcomes in patients with Achilles tendinopathy.

Influence of stretching and warm-up on Achilles tendon material properties

Park, DY; Rubenson, J; Carr, A; Mattson, J; Besier, T; Chou, LB. (2011) Foot & Ankle International / American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Swiss Foot and Ankle Society April 32(4):407-13 Key Point: Stretching or warm-up alone, and combined did not demonstrate statistically significant differences. Stretching and warm-up may have an equivalent effect on Achilles tendon biomechanics. Prolonged and more intense protocols may be required for changes to occur.

Eccentric Loading, Shock-Wave Treatment, or a Wait-and-See Policy for Tendinopathy of the Main Body of Tendo Achilles – A Randomized Controlled Trial

Rompe, Jan D.; Nafe, Bernhard; Furia, John P.; Maffulli, Nicola. (2007) American Journal of Sports Medicine vol. 35 no. 3 374-383 Key Points: Eccentric loading and low-energy SWT showed comparable results. The wait-and-see strategy was ineffective for the management of chronic recalcitrant tendinopathy of the main body of the Achilles tendon.

Injections for tendon injuries: Cure or Cause

Ryan, A.J. (1978) Physician and Sportsmedicine 6 (September), 39. Key point: Cortisone injections may make a tendon more likely to rupture.

Achilles Tendon Disorders in Athletes

Schepsis, A.A.; Jones, H.;, Andrew L. Haas, A.L. (2002) American Journal of Sports Medicine 30: 287-305 Key points: a) Achilles tendon injuries are among the more common injuries seen by sports medicine physicians and b) although most cases of this disorder are successfully treated without surgery, a small subgroup of cases may benefit from surgery.

Autologous Platelets Have No Effect on the Healing of Human Achilles Tendon Ruptures – A Randomized Single-Blind Study

Schepull, Thorsten; Kvist, Joanna; Norrman, Hanna; Trinks, Marie; Berlin, Gösta; Aspenberg, Per (2011) American Journal of Sports Medicine vol. 39 no. 1 38-47 Key Point: The results suggest that PRP is not useful for treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures.

Conservative treatment of chronic Achilles tendinopathy

Scott, Alex; Huisman, Elise; Khan, Karim. (2011) Canadian Medical Association Journal vol. 183 no. 10 Key Points: a) “Because of the pain associated with active shock wave treatment, none of the available trials are adequately placebo-controlled”, b) “Kane and coauthors examined the effects of patches of glyceryl trinitrate and eccentric exercise versus placebo patches and eccentric exercise… initial promising results from Paoloni and colleagues’ trial have not been supported by similar studies in other centres”, c) “Heavy-load (eccentric) exercise is currently the cornerstone of management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy, but it may take up to 12 weeks or longer of daily supervised exercise to see substantial improvements. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have little long-term benefit and there is insufficient evidence to support use of shock wave therapy. Corticosteroid injections should be avoided and other injection therapies are still in the experimental stage. Orthotics may be helpful in patients with an identifiable biomechanical abnormality, but braces and splints have no proven benefit.”

Genetic associations with Achilles tendinopathy

Scott, Alexander; Khan, Karim. (2010) Rheumatology 49 (11): 2005-2006. Key Point: individuals who carry a particular single nuclear polymorphism (SNP; specifically, the TT genotype of the GDF5 rs143383 variant) have twice the risk of developing Achilles tendon pathology compared with non-carriers.

Eccentric Training of the Gastrocnemius-Soleus Complex in Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy Results in Decreased Tendon Volume and Intratendinous Signal as Evaluated by MRI

Shalabi, A.; Kristoffersen-Wilberg, M.; Svensson, L.; Aspelin, P.; Movin, T. (2004) American Journal of Sports Medicine doi: 10.1177/0363546504263148 Key point: Eccentric calf muscle training resulted in decreased Achilles tendon volume and intratendinous signal, and correlated with an improved recovery.

Achilles tendonitis: Are corticosteroid injections useful or harmful?

Shrier, I.; Matheson, G.O.; Kohl, H.W. (1996) Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine 6, 245–50 Key points: a) there is no evidence to suggest that cortisone injections help with the treating the Achilles tendon, and b) the hypothesis that cortisone injections make a tendon more likely to rupture has not yet been confirmed in a study on humans.

Achilles tendon disorders in runners: A review

Smart, G.W.; Taunton, J.E.; Clement, D.B. (1980) Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 12, 231–43 Key points: a) The calf muscles’ rapid eccentric shortening at heel strike followed by rapid contraction at toe-off may cause degeneration of the Achilles tendon, b) Achilles tendon injuries may be caused by sudden increases in training distances, too many speed sessions, increased hill running, heavy training after a layoff, and inflexibility of the calf caused by too much training and not enough stretching, and c) when performed by an experienced surgeon, surgery for Achilles tendinosis (removal of the sheath and then the scar tissue underneath) has a very high success rate.

Use of fluroquinolone and risk of Achilles tendon rupture: a population-based cohort study

Sode, Jacob; Obel, Niels; Hallas, Jesper; Lassen; Annmarie. (2007) European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology vol. 63 issue 5 p 499-503 Key Point: Fluoroquinolone use triples the risk of Achilles tendon rupture, but the incidence among users is low.

Tendinitis: The analysis and treatment for running and Eccentric exercise in chronic tendinitis

Stanish, W.D.; Curwin, S.; Rubinovich, M. (1985) Clinics in Sports Medicine 4, 593–609. and Stanish, W.D., Rubinovich, R.M.; Curwin, S. (1986) and Clinical Orthopedics 208, 65–68 Key point: strengthening of the Achilles tendons with eccentric loading should begin as soon after Achilles tendinosis is diagnosed as possible.

Accelerated Achilles tendon healing by PDGF gene delivery with mesoporous silica nanoparticles

Suwalski, Arnaud; Dabboue, Hinda; Delalande, Anthony; Bensamoun, Sabine F.; Canon, Francis; Midoux, Patrick; Saillant, Gérard; Klatzmann, David; Salvetat, Jean-Paul; Pichon, Chantal. (2010) Biomaterials vol. 31 issue 19, 5237–5245 Key Point: Tendons treated with MSN and PDGF gene healed significantly faster than untreated tendons and those treated with pPDGF alone.

Increased Risk of Achilles Tendon Rupture With Quinolone Antibacterial Use, Especially in Elderly Patients Taking Oral Corticosteroids

van der Linden, Paul D.; Sturkenboom, Miriam C. J. M.; Herings, Ron M. C.; Leufkens, Hubert M. G.; Rowlands, Sam; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch. (2003) JAMA Internal Medicine vol 163 no.15 Key Point: Current exposure to quinolones increased the risk of Achilles tendon rupture. The risk is highest among elderly patients who were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids.

Weight Bearing in the Non-Operative Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures: A Randomised Controlled Trial

van Dijck, S., Young, S., Patel, A., Zhu, M., Bevan, W., Tomlinson, M. (2012)  Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery British Edition vol. 94-B no. suppl. XLI 96.  Key Points: Weight-bearing casts in the non-operative treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures appear to offer outcomes that are at least equivalent to outcomes of non-weight bearing casts. The overall re-rupture rate in this study is low, supporting the continued use of initial non-operative management in the treatment of acute ruptures.

Less Promising Results With Sclerosing Etoxysclerol Injections for Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Retrospective Study

van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; de Jonge, Milko C.; Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Dijk, MD, C. Niek (2010) American Journal of Sports Medicine 0363546510373467 Key Point: Our study did not confirm the high beneficial value of sclerosing neovascularization in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy. Despite the retrospective design of our study, we consider it important to stress that injection of Ethoxysclerol may not be as promising as was thought.

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in musculoskeletal disorders

Wang, Ching-Jen (2012) Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 7:11 Key Points: “ESWT is a new non-invasive therapeutic modality with effectiveness, convenience and safety. ESWT has the potential of replacing surgery in many orthopedic disorders without the surgical risks. The complication rates are low and negligible. The exact mechanism of shockwave therapy remains unknown.”

Conditioning of the Achilles tendon via ankle exercise improves correlations between sonographic measures of tendon thickness and body anthropometry

Wearing, Scott C.; Grigg, Nicole L.; Hooper, Sue L.; Smeathers, James E. (2011)  Journal of Applied Physiology vol. 110 no. 5 1384-1389 Key Points: a) as stated in the paper’s title, b) employ conditioning exercises to standardize the load history of tendon before measurements of sonographic tendon thickness in vivo.

Nonoperative Treatment of Acute Rupture of the Achilles Tendon – Results of a New Protocol and Comparison with Operative Treatment

Weber, Martin; Niemann, Marco; Lanz, Renate; Müller, Thorsten (2003) The American Journal of Sports Medicine Sept. vol. 31 no. 5 685-691  Key Point: Results of operative and nonoperative treatment were equivalent.

The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football—analysis of preseason injuries

Woods, C, Hawkins; R, Hulse, M; Hodson, A. (2002) British Journal of Sports Medicine 36:436-441 Key point: 91 professional football (soccer) clubs were audited over a two year period, revealing that Achilles tendonitis is more likely to occur in the pre-season rather than the season. One third of its occurrences were in the preseason.

Effect of Eccentric Strengthening on Pain, Muscle Strength, Endurance, and Functional Fitness Factors in Male Patients with Achilles Tendinopathy

Yu, JaeHo; Park, DaeSung; Lee, GyuChang (2013) American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation January – Volume 92 – Issue 1 Key Point: Eccentric strengthening was more effective than concentric strengthening in reducing pain and improving function in patients with Achilles tendinopathy.

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